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What was the first personal computer?

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Click here for further information on our rarity scale RARITY: One Of A Kind Information on the rarity of this item is unknown.

 YEAR: Around 1915
 COMPANY: Ford Instrument Co., Inc.
 COUNTRY: USA
 IN OUR COLLECTION: Yes
 

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Time of Flight Clock

 

The history of mechanical analog computers is described from early developments to their peak in World War II and to their obsolescence in the 1950s. The chief importance of most of these computers was their contribution to the superb gunnery of the US Navy. The work of Hannibal Ford, William Newell, and the Ford Instrument Co. is the framework for analog computers of this time.

Hannibal Choate Ford was born in Dryden,N.Y., on May 8.1887. His parents were Abram Millard Ford (born February 22. 1831) and Susan Agusta Giles Ford (born June 3, 1834). As a young boy, Ford showed mechanical talent with clocks and watches. Between high school and college he worked at the Crandall Typewriter Company, Groton, N.Y., at the Daugherty Typewriter Company, Kittanning, and at the Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company. He studied mechanical engineering at Cornell University, graduating in 1903 as a “mechanical engineer in electrical engineering.” Evidently his classmates at Cornell respected his mechanical inventive ability, because his motto in their senior yearbook was, “I would construct a machine to do any old thing in any old way.” He was elected to membership in Sigma Xi, the honorary society for research. After graduation Ford worked for the J.G. White Company. New York (1903-1905) where he developed and held two basic patents issued in 1906 on the speed-control system long used in the New York subways. At the Smith-Premier Typewriter Company, Syracuse, N.Y. (1905-1909) he developed over 60 mechanisms of commercial importance and received a number of patents over the period 1908 to 1915.”

In 1909, Ford worked for Elmer A. Sperry. whom he had known as a young man in his home town. Ford assisted Sperry in the development of the gyrocompass, a mechanical device for determining own ship's heading. In 1915. Ford resigned from Sperry to organize his own company, the Ford Marine Appliance Corporation, which became the Ford Instrument Company in 1916. The company’s mission was to develop and sell fire-control systems to the US Navy. Its first product, Range Keeper Mark 1, was introduced into the US Navy in 1917 on the USS Texas. Ford’s Range Keeper Mark 1 performed a remarkable number of continuous functions in real time for a computing system in those days.

The "Time of Flight" clocks were used in the U.S. Navy in WWI. The clocks told the time when a shell fired "now" would reach the target. This would allow the soldiers to know when to load up the next shell for firing.

Clymer, Ben A. “The Mechanical Analog Computers of Hannibal Ford and William Newell.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 15, no. 2, 1993, web.mit.edu/STS.035/www/PDFs/Newell.pdf.






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IMAGES
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COMPUTER COLLECTION LIST (PRE-1981)
(Analogs in blue)
  1. AIM-65 (single board)
  2. AIM-65 (factory case)
  3. AIM-65 (Jon Titus)
  4. ALICE micro-ordinateur
  5. Altair 680
  6. Altair 8800
  7. Altair 8800A
  8. Altair 8800b
  9. Altair 8800b Turnkey (see Pertec below)
  10. Altair 8800b (see Pertec below)
  11. Altair 8800b w/ Hardisk Controller & Datakeeper
  12. Altos ACS-8000
  13. American Basic Science Club Analog Computer
  14. AMF Educational Computer
  15. Apple II Plus
  16. ASCI SystemX
  17. ASR 33 Teletype
  18. Automatic Teaching Computer Kit
  19. Beckman ElectroComp Electric Heating Computer
  20. Beckman ElectroComp Energy Savings Computer
  21. Beckman Solid State Fuel Cost Computer
  22. Brainiac K-30
  23. Calif. Computer Systems 2200
  24. CES Ed-Lab 650
  25. Commodore 8032
  26. Commodore 64
  27. Commodore PET 2001
  28. Commodore Super Pet
  29. Compucolor II
  30. Compukit 1
  31. Compukit 1 Deluxe Model
  32. Compukit 2
  33. Compukit UK101
  34. Comspace CT-650
  35. Cosmac Elf (RCA1802)
  36. Cosmac Microtutor
  37. Cosmac Netronics ELF II
  38. Cosmac VIP
  39. Cromemco System I
  40. Cromemco System III
  41. Cromemco Z-2D
  42. Datapoint 2200
  43. Digi-Comp I (flat box)
  44. Digi-Comp I (square box)
  45. Digital Computer Lab
  46. Donner 3500
  47. Durango F-85
  48. Dynabyte
  49. E & L Inst MMD-1
  50. E & L Inst MMD-2
  51. Eagle II
  52. Electric Tabulating Machine (one original counter, 1889)
  53. Electronic Associates TR-10
  54. Electronic Associates TR-10 Model II
  55. Electronic Associates TR-20
  56. Electronic Associates TR-48
  57. Electronic Associates Model 180
  58. Electronic Associates Model 380 Hybrid
  59. Geniac
  60. Google Glass (definitely not vintage)
  61. Heath EC-1 (factory assembled by Heath)
  62. Heathkit EC-1 (kit)
  63. Heathkit ET 3100 trainer
  64. Heathkit H8
  65. Heathkit H9 Video Terminal
  66. Hickok Logic Teaching Sys.
  67. Hickok Servo Teaching Sys.
  68. HP 2115A
  69. HP 85
  70. HP 5036A
  71. HP 9825A
  72. HP 9825B
  73. HP 9830A
  74. Iasis 7301
  75. I-COR MAC-1
  76. ICS Microcomputer Training System
  77. IMSAI 108 (prototype)
  78. IMSAI 8048 Control Computer
  79. IMSAI 8048 (The Dollhouse Computer)
  80. IMSAI 8080
  81. IMSAI PCS-40
  82. IMSAI PCS-80
  83. IMSAI VDP-80
  84. Informer
  85. Intel Intellec MDS
  86. Intel MDS-800
  87. Intel Prompt 48
  88. Intel SBC 80/10
  89. Intel SDK-85
  90. Intel SDK-85 (unassembled)
  91. Intel SDK-86
  92. Intertec Superbrain
  93. ITT MP-EX
  94. JR-01 Computer
  95. KIM-1
  96. LAN-DEC
  97. LAN-DEC 20
  98. LAN-ALOG
  99. Lehrcomputer (Germany)
  100. Lawrence Livermore Lab
  101. Lear Siegler ADM3A
  102. Logikit LK255 (Feedback)
  103. Logix SF-5000 Electronic Computer
  104. MAC-1 Mini Analog Computer
  105. MAC Tutor (Bell Laboratories)
  106. MEK6800D2
  107. Micro 68
  108. Microtan 65
  109. Midwest Scientific Instruments 6800
  110. Minivac 601
  111. Minivac 6010
  112. Mini-Scamp Microcomputer
  113. Nascom I
  114. Nascom II
  115. National Radio Institute 832
  116. NEC TK-80
  117. NorthStar Horizon
  118. Olivetti Programma 101
  119. Olivetti Programma 203
  120. Olivetti Programma 602
  121. Open University PT501
  122. Ordinateur d'Apprentissage JR-01
  123. Osborne 1
  124. OSI 300
  125. OSI 600 (SuperBoard II)
  126. OSI C2-OEM-4
  127. OSI Challenger-1P
  128. Pastoriza Personal Analogue Computer
  129. Pertec MITS 300/25 (Altair desk business system)
  130. Pertec MITS 300/55 (Altair Turnkey business system)
  131. PolyMorphic Systems 8810
  132. PolyMorphic Poly-88
  133. Protech-83
  134. Range Keeper Mk.6 Mechanical Analog Computer, 1926
  135. Range Keeper Mk.7 Mechanical Analog Computer, 1935?
  136. Sargent-Welch Scientific Company Cat. No.7528 Analog Computer
  137. Science of Cambridge MK-14 (Sinclair)
  138. SD Systems Z80 starter kit
  139. Sharp MZ-40K
  140. Sharp MZ-80k
  141. Siemens ECB-85
  142. Signetics Instructor 50
  143. Sinclair ZX-81
  144. Smoke Signal Broadcasting
  145. Sol-20
  146. Spark16
  147. Sphere 1
  148. Sphere/SWTPC Computer System
  149. SWTP CMOS Microlab
  150. SWTP CT-82 Terminal
  151. SWTPC 6800
  152. SWTPC 6800 (w/ Smoke Signal Broadcasting drive)
  153. SWTPC CT-64 Video Terminal, SS-50
  154. SWTPC TV Typewriter II CT-1024
  155. Synertek VIM-1
  156. Synertek SYM-1
  157. Systron-Donner 3500
  158. Tei MCS-112
  159. Tektronix 4006-1
  160. Telefunken RAT 700
  161. TI LCM-1001 (Microprogrammer)
  162. TI LCM-1001 (Microprogrammer)
  163. TI Silent 700 Terminal
  164. TI TM 990/189
  165. Vector 1
  166. Vector 3
  167. Vidac 336
  168. Wang 2200
  169. Welch Scientific Company Cat. No.7528 Analog Computer
  170. Xerox 820 Mark I
OTHER COMPUTERS (LUGGABLES 1982-1986)
  1. Chameleon Plus
  2. Commodore SX64
  3. Epson HX-20
  4. Kaypro I
  5. Kaypro II
  6. Kaypro 2x
  7. Kaypro 16
  8. Osborne 1
  9. Panasonic Senior Partner
  10. Visual Commuter
RARE & NOTABLE DOCUMENTS
  1. Babbage's Calculating Engine (1834)
  2. Electric Tabulating Machine (1889, Herman Hollerith's personal copy)
  3. The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System (1890)
  4. Counting a Nation by Electricity (1891)
  5. Calculating Machines (1947)
  6. Moore School Lectures Vol. II (1947)
  7. Mathematical Theory of Communication (1948)
  8. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems (1949)
  9. The "Moore's Law" article (Electronics, 1965)
  10. Printout from Babbage's Difference Engine #2 (London Science Museum, 2004)